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Matthew King
Matthew King

Get 26 Search Result(s) For Episodes


Rigorous evidence syntheses, such as systematic reviews, have specific requirements for literature searches.13 These requirements are stipulated in conduct guidance issued by renowned institutions dedicated to warrant and elevate the quality of evidence synthesis in academia. We have based our further analysis on guidance published by three institutions: Cochrane, The Campbell Collaboration, and the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE). We decided not to include PRISMA and ROSES guidance, as these resources offer guidance on reporting rather than conduct. Below, we provide an overview of how searches for studies to be included in the evidence base should be performed in systematic reviews.




Get 26 Search Result(s) for episodes


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In summary, it is important to consider how far a search system supports the user in articulating and framing a query in a systematic search context, with special attention to high levels of coverage, recall, precision, and reproducibility.


In addition, to obtain a broader picture of the qualities of academic search systems, we also included other search systems that are regularly used among academic researchers across disciplines38: AMiner, ACM, arXiv, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), CiteSeerX, Digital Bibliography & Library Project (DBLP), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), IEEE Xplore Digital Library, JSTOR, Microsoft Academic, Semantic Scholar, SpringerLink, Wiley Online Library, WorldCat, and WorldWideScience. Thus, we examine the quality of a total of 28 search systems that access 34 databases either via web search engines (eg, Google Scholar or Microsoft Academic), via platforms that allow access to one or more discrete databases (eg, ProQuest or OVID) or other bibliographic databases (eg, Transport Research International Documentation). Below, we present an overview of the 28 search systems; if the database is accessed via a platform, the database's name is given in parentheses as follows:


While most (21 of 28) search systems offer some kind of controlled vocabulary, the quality differs significantly. In medicine, reviewers rely on frequently updated and rigorously categorized Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), while in other disciplines, specialist databases offer simpler thesauri. The availability of controlled vocabulary depends on the underlying database and its data structure. We found that in 79% of the cases, the controlled vocabulary was presented in a hierarchical form with multiple levels, and in 61% of the cases, the controlled vocabulary was searchable. Full text search functionality was available in only nine search systems, while 17 search systems did not provide that functionality, and for the semantic search engines Microsoft Academic and Semantic Scholar, it was unclear what parts of the records are indexed and searched.


Desired performance criteria need to be evaluated relative to the specific systematic search requirements of the reviewer. Our analysis made some important evaluation criteria transparent, so it is possible for reviewers to reflect on how these criteria could facilitate or limit their systematic searches. For reviewers, it is important to choose a search system that is suitable for a given research domain, a certain retrospective focus, and that covers the specific record type of interest. Coverage of a search system and/or its underlying database(s) might be important for evaluating a search system's potential recall. Coverage is, however, only beneficial when the necessary retrieval capabilities are offered as well. Otherwise, searching large, multidisciplinary databases might involve low search precision, making systematic search inefficient and laborious. Alternatively, reviewers might want to test systems offering the option to download resources in bulk. Compared with systems without this feature, bulk download allows efficient data handling in combination with reference management software and data analysis tools.


One possible limitation might be that whenever a certain threshold is defined, someone asks why it was not some other threshold. In this study, we tried to alleviate this criticism by basing our thresholds on the quality guidance issues by Cochrane, The Campbell Collaboration, and the CEE. Further, if we needed to decide on specific numeric thresholds such as the minimum length of search strings or the minimum number of field codes, we based our decision on a review of best practices from previously published and highly cited systematic reviews.


It has often been unclear exactly why certain search systems perform better or worse than others. Performance issues, especially those concerning the correct interpretation of Boolean search strings by search systems, may have remained undetected so far. We aimed to make these performance differences explicit. Since we used the same metrics for all systems, our assessment makes a large set of systems comparable. If impediments of search systems are made transparent, experienced reviewers could perhaps circumvent these limitations by using search systems differently. However, researchers lacking such knowledge run the risk of expecting too much of search systems (even when searched in a systematic way) and drawing erroneous conclusions based on biased sets of search results. The establishment of the 27 testing criteria here may help to create awareness among reviewers of where they need to look when selecting and using search systems.


We like to thank the two anonymous reviewers, associate editor, and editor Prof Gerta Rücker of Research Synthesis Methods for their valuable comments that helped improving this paper. All remaining errors and omissions are ours.


You may not find the newspaper that you need for your research in the Chronicling America digitized collection. In those cases, turn to the US Newspaper Directory. It catalogs newspapers published 1690-present. Click the US Newspaper Directory button on the Chronicling America website to search. The catalog will tell you where known copies of the paper can be accessed.


Run a search in Newspaper Navigator of the word baseball and then run the same search in Chronicling America. A comparison of the results highlights the between Chronicling America and Newspaper Navigator when it comes to finding images in old newspapers.


The search results returned by the Newspaper Navigator are solely focused on photos and images. This means you have a fraction of the number results to review. Another big advantage of Newspaper Navigator over Chronicling America is the size of the image. Newspaper Navigator gives you just the large image to review, while Chronicling America shows you a thumbnail of the entire page with images so small that you must click and load the page to analyze them.


Considering how many variations there can be to a name, when searching for ancestors try searching first on the name of their town or location. If there are still quite a few results, you can then filter to only newspapers from their state. I search the town name first because an article may appear in a newspaper from a different state. In the case of my search for McMinnville, I received a small, manageable results list. Had it been large and included both McMinnville, TN and McMinnville, OR, filtering to just Oregon would be helpful.


In testing my search theories, I learned that Newspaper Navigator did not do well with multiple words that do not appear right next to each other. Therefore, I tried to find word strings that pertained to my family that I could search for such as the name of a business: Consolidation Coal Company.


Background: Causative factors may be different for the very first onset of symptoms of the 'disease' of low back pain (LBP) than for ensuing episodes that occur after a pain-free period. This differentiation hinges on a life-time absence of low back pain at first onset and short-term absence for further episodes. In this systematic review, we explored whether researchers make these distinctions when investigating the causality of LBP.


Methods: A literature search of PUBMED, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases was performed from January 2010 until September 2016 using the search terms 'low back pain' or 'back pain' and 'risk factor' or 'caus*' or 'predict*' or 'onset' or 'first-time' or 'inception' or 'incidence'. Two reviewers extracted information on study design, types of episodes of back pain to distinguish the disease of LBP and recurring episodes, and also to determine the definitions of disease- or pain-free periods.


Results: Thirty-three articles purporting to study causes of LBP were included. Upon scrutiny, 31 of the 33 articles were unclear as to what type of causality they were studying, that of the 'disease' or the episode, or a mere association with LBP. Only 9 studies used a prospective study design. Five studies appeared to investigate the onset of the disease of LBP, however, only one study truly captured the first incidence of LBP, which was the result of sports injury. Six appeared to study episodes but only one clearly related to the concept of episodes. Therefore, among those 11 studies, nine included both first-time LBP and episodes of LBP. Consequently, 22 studies related to the prevalence of LBP, as they probably included a mixture of first-time, recurring and ongoing episodes without distinction.


Conclusion: Recent literature concerning the causality of LBP does not differentiate between the 'disease' of LBP and its recurring episodes mainly due to a lack of a clear definition of absence of LBP at baseline. Therefore, current research is not capable of providing a valid answer on this topic.


Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks). 041b061a72


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