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Benjamin Eagles
Benjamin Eagles

The Complete Volume Spread Analysis System Expl... ##TOP##

Volume Spread Analysis (VSA) methodology takes a multi-dimensional approach to analysing the market, and looks at the relationship between price, spread or range, and volume. VSA is a proprietary market analysis method conceived by veteran trader, Tom Williams, who was a highly successful member of a professional trading syndicate in the 1960s and also the creator of TradeGuider Systems. (

The Complete Volume Spread Analysis System Expl...

VSA looks at the interrelationship between three variables on the chart in order to determine the balance of supply and demand as well as the probable near term direction of the market. These variables are the amount of volume on a price bar, the price spread or range of that bar (do not confuse this with the bid/ask spread), and the closing price on the spread of that bar. For the correct analysis of volume, one needs to realize that the recorded volume information contains only half of the meaning required to arrive at a correct analysis. The other half of the meaning is found in the price range. Volume always indicates the amount of activity going on and the corresponding price spread shows the price movement on that volume.

Why do the members of the self-regulated Exchanges around the world like to keep true volume information away from you as far as possible? The reason is because they know how important it is in analysing a market! The significance and importance of volume appears little understood by most non-professional traders. Perhaps this is because there is very little information and limited teaching available on this vital part of technical analysis. To use a chart without volume data is similar to buying an automobile without a gasoline tank.

Where volume is dealt with in other forms of technical analysis, it is often viewed in isolation, or averaged in some way across an extended timeframe. Analysing volume, or price for that matter, is something that cannot be broken down into simple mathematical formulae. This is one of the reasons why there are so many technical indicators; some formulas work best for cyclic markets, some formulas are better for volatile situations, whilst others are better when prices are trending.

The second file, Population Analysis with Microcomputers, Volume II (original archived copy, 1994), contains the complete set of PAS spreadsheets and instructions on how to use them. By default, these documents are included in the USCB_Tools installation.

Volume spread analysis is a method of analysis that looks at candles and the volume per candle to determine price direction. It looks at the quantity of volume per candle, range spread, and the closing price.

There are several steps you need to follow when trading volume spread analysis. First, you need to ensure that you are using candlesticks to trade. It does not work well when you use other chart types like line, bar, and renko charts.

Accumulation is the first stage in understanding volume price analysis. A good example of understanding assuming that you are an entrepreneur who sells shaving blades. To make more sales, you will need to market the products and showcase their competitive advantage against the peers. You can use any marketing concepts available.

Over the past two decades, national political and civil discourse in the United States has been characterized by "Truth Decay," defined as a set of four interrelated trends: an increasing disagreement about facts and analytical interpretations of facts and data; a blurring of the line between opinion and fact; an increase in the relative volume, and resulting influence, of opinion and personal experience over fact; and lowered trust in formerly respected sources of factual information. These trends have many causes, but this report focuses on four: characteristics of human cognitive processing, such as cognitive bias; changes in the information system, including social media and the 24-hour news cycle; competing demands on the education system that diminish time spent on media literacy and critical thinking; and polarization, both political and demographic. The most damaging consequences of Truth Decay include the erosion of civil discourse, political paralysis, alienation and disengagement of individuals from political and civic institutions, and uncertainty over national policy.

The technology of EMG recording is relatively new. There are still limitations in detection and characterization of existing nonlinearities in the surface electromyography (sEMG, a special technique for studying muscle signals) signal, estimation of the phase, acquiring exact information due to derivation from normality (1, 2) Traditional system reconstruction algorithms have various limitations and considerable computational complexity and many show high variance (1). Recent advances in technologies of signal processing and mathematical models have made it practical to develop advanced EMG detection and analysis techniques. Various mathematical techniques and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have received extensive attraction. Mathematical models include wavelet transform, time-frequency approaches, Fourier transform, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD), statistical measures, and higher-order statistics. AI approaches towards signal recognition include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNN), and fuzzy logic system. Genetic Algorithm (GA) has also been applied in evolvable hardware chip for the mapping of EMG inputs to desired hand actions.

A real-time application of artificial neural network that can accurately recognize the myoelectric signal (MES) is proposed by Del and Park (38) in 1994. According to their research, MES features are first extracted through Fourier analysis and clustered using fuzzy c-means algorithm. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is a method of clustering which allows data to belong to two or more clusters. The neural network output represents a degree of desired muscle stimulation over a synergic, but enervated muscle. Real time operation is achieved by taking advantage of hardware multipliers present in Digital signal processing (DSP) processors to perform Fast Fourier Transform for feature extraction and neurode input integration for featured classification. Adaptive interfaces are a natural and important class application for artificial neural network (ANN). Error-back propagation method is used as a learning procedure for multilayred, feedforward neural network. By means of this procedure, the network can learn to map a set of inputs to a set of outputs. The network topology chosen was the feedforward variety with one input layer containing 64 input neurodes, one hidden layer with two neurodes and one output neurode (38). The model using ANN is not only an advance on MES signal recognition in real-time but also, it curtails subjects training to a minimum. Neural network architectures provide a two-fold solution: a fast way of system customization to the patient and a better patient adoption to the system, improving the low rate of acceptance of the devices. The method proposed by Del and Park can solve problems (acceptable cost and performance criteria) that conventional statistical methods cannot.

From 1987 to 1993, HOS based signal analysis techniques have been developed by researchers like Nikias, Mendal, Raghuveer, and Petropulu for deterministic and non-deterministic phase signals, testing of Gaussianity and linearity, coherence and coupling of the signal, and more. During the 1990s, Nikias et al. (2, 46, 47) had discovered that the main advantage of HOS over SOS is that HOS can suppress Gaussian noise in detection, parameter estimation, and classification. Nikias informs that HOS is blind to any kind of Gaussian process; a non-zero HOS measurement can provide a test of the extent of non-Gaussianity in a signal. Another feature of HOS is that the HOS spectrum of the sum of two or more statistically independent random processes equal the sum of their individual HOS spectra, therefore, HOS can extract information due to derivation from Gaussianity and it provides suitable measurement of the extent of statistical dependence in time series. Further, the bispectrum, first member of HOS spectra, carries magnitude and phase information that allows one to recover both the Fourier magnitude and phase value of the system impulse response with the expectation of a linear phase term. In 2000, Kaplanis et al. (48) have given their theory of sEMG signal analysis using HOS. According to their theory, to quantify the non-Gaussianity of a random process, the normalized bispectrum, or bicoherence is estimated according to equation 12:

A real-time system for EMG signal analysis was done by Karlsson and Nystrom in 1995 (54). The aim was to develop a system for clinical use with the characteristics of graphics feedback, flexible parameter selection, standard method and flexible addition processing. To produce a time-frequency representation of a signal, the short-time Fourier transform was proposed to be used. A major drawback of this method was that stationary signal was assumed. Even when there is no voluntary change of muscle state, myoelectric signals are non stationary simply due to the inherent physiology of the organs.

Improve performance. Data access operations on each partition take place over a smaller volume of data. Correctly done, partitioning can make your system more efficient. Operations that affect more than one partition can run in parallel.

The most important factor is the choice of a sharding key. It can be difficult to change the key after the system is in operation. The key must ensure that data is partitioned to spread the workload as evenly as possible across the shards.

For example, if you use Azure table storage, there is a limit to the volume of requests that can be handled by a single partition in a particular period of time. (For more information, see Azure storage scalability and performance targets.) A busy shard might require more resources than a single partition can handle. If so, the shard might need to be repartitioned to spread the load. If the total size or throughput of these tables exceeds the capacity of a storage account, you might need to create additional storage accounts and spread the tables across these accounts. 041b061a72


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